Archive for the ‘High-speed rail lines’ Category
De eerder voorgestelde hogesnelheidslijn Utrecht – Eindhoven zou binnen Den Bosch de bestaande spoorlijn volgen, tussen Maas en station. Hier wordt een variant beschreven, ten westen van de bestaande lijn. Het loopt langs Fort Crèvecoeur, daarom heet het hier Crèvecoeur-tracé.
De lijn zou op viaduct lopen vanaf de Maas, en mogelijk in tunnel vanaf Orthen. Dat is ingewikkeld, maar de eerder voorgestelde verdubbeling van de bestaande lijn is dat ook. Het Crèvecoeur-tracé vermijdt bijna alle bebouwing tussen binnenstad en Maas, en kan een kaarsrechte weg volgen. Vroeger was dit polderlandschap langs de Dieze, buiten de stad. Na de bouw van spoorlijn en rijksweg, werd het gebied afgesneden van de groeiende stad, en gebruikt voor zandwinning: de plassen zijn daarbij ontstaan. Van het oude fort zelf is weinig behouden, maar het is nog militair terrein, herkenbaar vanuit de trein door de geparkeerde legervoertuigen.
De eerdere voorstellen
Het eerder voorgesteld HSL-tracé loopt vanaf de Waal (Waardenburg) aan de oostzijde van de bestaande lijn. Bij de Maasbrug tussen Hedel en Den Bosch zou het iets draaien: enkele graden aan de noord-oever, en enkele graden aan de zuidoever. Daarmee wordt de knik in het bestaande tracé vermeden. De HSL sluit vervolgens aan op de oude lijn, dat viersporig wordt.
De toegevoegde capaciteit maakt twee nieuwe stations mogelijk, één op de oude tweesporige lijn, en één op de viersporige lijn (na de aansluiting met de HSL).
Stations tussen binnenstad en Maas: basiskaart van Jan-Willem van Aalst, onder CC3.0 licentie…
In deze variant, kan de spoorlijn langs de Ertveldplas beperkt verschoven worden. Dat betekent dat het tracé ook vast zit, aan de bestaande kruising van de Dieze. Daar zijn de bruggen en de aansluiting met de lijn uit Nijmegen net vernieuwd, maar dat is ook een nadeel, want het ontwerp houdt geen rekening met een viersporige lijn vanuit het noorden. Aanpassingen met extra sporen zijn dan nodig.
Het Crèvecoeur-tracé ligt verder naar het westen, en kan ook op een nieuw tracé de Dieze kruisen. Er is wel een nadeel: het moet echt door de Ertveldplas, en afhankelijk van de diepte van de zandwinning wordt de bouw ingewikkelder. Het tracé blijft echter dicht bij de oostrand van de plas.
Bij het naderen van het nieuwe tracé kan de HSL aan de oostkant van de bestaande lijn blijven, tot aan de Maas. Het draait echter niet, om de knik in het oude tracé te vermijden. In plaats daarvan, zou de nieuwe lijn iets klimmen na de Maasbrug, en de bestaande lijn kruisen, dat zelf hier daalt. Uiteraard is dit ook goed te combineren met een HSL-tracé aan de westzijde van de oude lijn: in dat geval is er geen flyover.
Na de flyover draait de nieuwe HSL wel, om naast de oude Rijksweg te lopen (Treurenburg). Het loopt evenwijdig aan de oude lijn, maar 120 m ten westen daarvan. Net voor het dorpje Orthen begint het weer te draaien, meer naar het westen. Het loopt dan in een flauwe boog, naar het stationsemplacement, net na de Dieze.
Klik om te vergroten…
In de oude lijn zit een S-bocht, net voor de Dieze. Blijkbaar was dat nodig, om de tweesporige brug over de Dieze te kunnen delen, met de lijn uit Nijmegen. Na de brug moet de oude lijn daarom iets draaien, om aan de sluiten op de hoofd-as van het station. De net vernieuwde bruggen, met flyover voor de treinen uit Nijmegen, hebben dit niet kunnen corrigeren. De nieuwe HSL kan op de stations-as aansluiten, zonder S-bocht: het tracé ligt ten westen van de spoorbruggen (en de nieuwe verkeersbrug).
De plaats van de aansluiting hangt af van de vraag, of de HSL wel een station krijgt. Het Crèvecoeur-tracé is namelijk geschikt voor een doorgaande lijn, dat in tunnel door Station Den Bosch loopt (meer daarover later). Een doorgaande tunnel komt waarschijnlijk onder de westelijke sporen en de Parallelweg / Magistratenlaan. Om alle bebouwing te vermijden, moet het de as van het station volgen. Een bijkomend voordeel is dat alle conflicten met de voorgestelde vier sporen tussen Den Bosch en Oss verdwijnen.
Een tunnel onder het station vereist een tunnel onder de Dieze, en dat vereist weer een tunnel onder de Ertveldplas, of een soort polder waar de lijn kan klimmen / dalen. (Tussen Dieze en Ertveldplas is onvoldoende ruimte, om van tunnel op viaduct over te schakelen).
Het Crèvecoeur-tracé kan ook aansluiten op de bestaande perronsporen, maar dat stelt eisen aan de kruising van de Dieze. Ook in dit geval is een Dieze-tunnel wenselijk, want de ruimte tussen Dieze en perrons is beperkt. Er zit meer flexibiliteit in het tracé zelf, want de treinen rijden niet zo hard, vlak bij het station. Het tracé moet ook de nieuwe weg kruisen, de doorgetrokken Parallelweg, en dat gaat beter met een tunnel. De gemeente plant hier een ‘Stadscampus’ naast de sporen, maar het terrein is nog niet verbouwd.
Met een aansluiting op de perronsporen, rijden de treinen niet veel sneller tussen Maas en station, dan op de eerder voorgestelde viersporige lijn. De aanleg van twee nieuwe stations is in beide varianten mogelijk. Planologisch lijkt het Crèvecoeur-tracé beter, omdat het de woonwijken vermijdt, behalve bij het dorpje Orthen. Met een doorgaande tunnel onder het station, rijden de treinen wel degelijk harder door Den Bosch. Het Crèvecoeur-tracé heeft dan de voorkeur, want het kan zeker voor 200 km/h worden ontworpen. Een doorgaande tunnel is alleen zinvol met een snelle lijn aan de zuidkant, richting Vught: dat wordt apart beschreven.
Moldova is poor, and has a low-quality rail network, with few external links. The historical explanation is simple: peripheral location within larger states. In the 19th century, it was part of the Russian Governorate of Bessarabia, at the edge of the Russian Empire. The northern end bordered on the periphery of Austrian Galicia. In the 20th century the region was briefly part of a greater Romania, but it was peripheral there too. Now Moldova is on the wrong side of the European Union external border.
There are geographical explanations too. The Russian Governorate of Bessarabia was a clear geographical unit, with river boundaries – Prut and Danube on the west, Dniester on the east. However, the rivers are also barriers to east-west transport, with few bridges. The rivers follow the curve of the Carpathian range, which is also an obstacle. The route to western Europe is therefore an arc, north from the Black Sea, and turning 90 degrees to the west.
Carpathian arc, Public domain…
After the Second World War, the Soviet Union regained control of the former Governorate of Bessarabia. The southern Budjak region became part of Ukraine, mainly on ethnic grounds. The northern strip between the two rivers was also split on ethnic lines. The new Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic included a strip east of the Dniester, but that was not historically part of Bessarabia. When the Soviet Union broke up, the Moldavian SSR became the independent Moldova, and the strip east of the Dniester soon seceded as Transnistria.
Moldova has a population of 3,5 million, with about one-third concentrated around the capital Chișinău. Transnistria has about 500 000 inhabitants. The Budjak, which is not an administrative entity, has about 600 000 inhabitants. It is a steppe zone, and thinly populated by European standards.
The only ‘main’ rail route through Moldova is the east-west Iași – Chișinău – Odessa route: the Moldovan section is single-track. There is no complete north-south line inside Moldova. There is a route south from Chișinău, to Bender and Galați. After Transnistria seceded, a cut-off line south of Chișinău was reopened, bypassing Bender and shortening the route. There are single-track rail lines across the Prut river at Cantemir and Ungheni, and across the Dniester at Rîbniţa.
In the north, Russian rail lines were built around 1895 east from Chernivtsi, which was then in Austrian Galicia. They ran to Bălţi and Mohyliw-Podilskyj (Moghilǎu) via Ocniţa. From Mohyliw-Podilskyj, the line continues north to Zhmerynka, on the main Odessa line. Because this region was split along ethnic lines, the line into Ocniţa now crosses the Moldova- Ukraine border six times, and it has been neglected.
None of these lines were of good quality, and the terrain is unsuitable for railway construction. Moldova consists mainly of alternating ridges and valleys, and the lines climb up and down the valley flanks, to cross the ridges. The only flat terrain is the valley floor of the Prut, but there is no complete rail line along the river.
Framework of high-speed lines
This proposed network of high-speed lines (HSL), would allow restructuring of the railways between the Prut, the Danube and the Dniester. The ‘national network’ function would however disappear: borders are ignored here. First, a Wallachian Plain high-speed rail corridor would link Bucharest to Iași and Galați.
The Bucharest – Iași HSL would be extended to Kiev via Vinnytsia. Another high-speed line would link Chernivtsi to Iași, Chișinău, and Odessa, duplicating the existing main line through Moldova. At Iași, these two lines would cross. That means that Iași, rather than Chișinău, would be the main HSL junction for Moldova.
The Wallachian Plain high-speed line could be extended from Galați to Odessa, via Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. This line would run through the Budjak, with stations at both ends of the region. On this long section, an intermediate station at Tatarbunary might be possible, although it would serve a thinly populated region.
A Constanța – Odessa high-speed line would cross the Danube delta between Tulcea and Izmail, and join the Galați – Odessa line north of Izmail. The station at Izmail would also serve part of the Budjak, although perhaps not in the direction of Galați.
Entirely east of Moldova, a Kiev – Vinnytsia – Odessa HSL would parallel the existing main line. Some trains might stop at an intermediate HSL station at Kotovsk.
The proposed Kiev – Chernivtsi – Budapest HSL would diverge from the Kiev – Iași – Bucharest HSL at Mohyliw-Podilskyj (Moghilǎu), on the present Moldova – Ukraine border. It would turn east after crossing the river Dniester, and run through northern Moldova, passing Briceni, but without stations.
The proposed Prut valley rail line from Iași to Galați is not a high-speed rail line, but would be built to high standards. It can therefore complement the HSL lines, and provide a fast service from Iași to Galați.
Entrance points to the high-speed network
The population of Moldova and the Budjak could access a European HSL network at several stations.
In the north of Moldova, only the Ocniţa rayon would be served by the HSL station at Mohyliw-Podilskyj, just across the border. Depending on the alignment toward Kiev, there might be a HSL station at Zhmerynka, partly duplicating the function of the existing rail junction there. Otherwise, HSL passengers from Mohyliw-Podilskyj could transfer at Vinnytsia, for trains to L’viv or Odessa.
The HSL station at Chernivtsi would serve Briceni rayon, at the north-western tip of Moldova. Passengers would use a regional service from Lipcani to Chernivtsi. Similarly, some passengers might use the existing Bălţi – Rîbnița – Slobidka line, to access a HSL station at Kotovsk, for travel to Odessa. Otherwise, a HSL station at Bălţi would be more convenient.
Inside Moldova there would be only two HSL stations, at Bălţi, and Chișinău. There would be another two in Transnistria, at Bender and Tiraspol. High-speed travel, between Bălţi and the other three cities, would require transfer at Iași. From a Moldovan national perspective, a line between the capital and Bălţi might be desirable – but not in a wider regional framework. These four cities are in central Moldova and southern Transnistria, where the population is concentrated.
Parts of Fălești, Ungheni, and Nisporeni rayons would be served by the HSL station at Iași. The Prut valley line would have stations at the rayon capitals in Leova, Cantemir, and Cahul, with trains to HSL stations at both Iași and Galați. From Cantemir, a regional line would also link to a HSL station at Birlad.
The Galați HSL station would serve the southern rayons of Moldova, and the western tip of the Budjak. The eastern Budjak would be served by the station at Bilhorod (and possibly Tatarbunary). The region along the Danube delta, the southern edge of the Budjak, would be served by the HSL station at Izmail.
With these stations as European-level network access points, the system of regional rail lines can be re-structured to feed them. That function would also determine the most logical improvements to existing lines and the location of new lines.
To start with, the existing main line Iași – Ungheni – Chișinău – Bender – Tiraspol would become a regional line parallel to a high-speed line. Similarly, the Ungheni – Bălţi line would carry a regional service starting in Iași, parallel to a HSL Iași – Bălţi. The Bălți – Rîbnița – Slobidka line would be upgraded, and passenger services extended to Kotovsk for better connections.
Regional lines in northern Moldova, new sections in red…
The line north from Bălți to Ocniţa would be upgraded as a regional line, serving three rayon capitals. The remaining section from Ocniţa to Mohyliw-Podilskyj is so indirect, that it is probably only suitable for freight. Similarly, the Chernivtsi – Lipcani line would be upgraded for regional services, but restoration of the remaining Lipcani – Ocniţa section has little value for passengers.
South of the main axis Iași – Chișinău – Tiraspol, the proposed Prut valley line would also carry a regional service Iași – Cantemir – Galați. The existing line Birlad – Cantemir – Basarabeasca would be upgraded, with two new tunnels inside Romania, to create an east-west regional line across southern Moldova to the Budjak.
Regional lines in southern Moldova / Budjak, new sections in red…
At Basarabeasca, the Birlad line would cross the existing Chișinău – Bolhrad – Galați line – the nearest thing to a north-south route in present-day Moldova. This line needs three new tunnels: one to avoid the long detour through Cainari, one through the ridge south of Basarabeasca station, and one through the ridge west of Bolhrad. That would significantly shorten the route.
From Basarabeasca, the disused line to Artsyz would be re-opened, and the whole line to Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi upgraded as a regional line. This is a longer route and population density is low – about 20 or 30 per km2.
Artsyz is also the junction for the line to Izmail. The proposed HSL would carry all traffic between Izmail, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi and Odessa, and the population of the Budjak is concentrated around these cities. The regional service Izmail – Artsyz – Bilhorod would be residual.
To complement the HSL Izmail – Bilhorod – Odessa, a new link Galați – Izmail is needed. The HSL Galați – Odessa would pass north of Izmail, but a triangular junction would allow a Galați – Izmail – Tulcea service. In that case a third track for freight is sufficient. If the HSL ran further north (across the lakes), then a separate regional line Galați – Izmail would be logical. It would require about 50 km of new track east of Reni.
The diagram below shows how the regional lines would serve over half the rayon capitals in Moldova. This is essentially the existing network, plus the Prut valley line, and with two lines extended into Galați.
Base map Moldova administrative, by Andrein, CC4 and CC3 licence…
Although not every rayon would have a rail connection, this is a reasonable level of infrastructure, given the population density. Upgrading of the existing lines for European-standard regional services, is more important than construction of new low-quality lines, to serve the remaining rayons.
The proposed Wallachian Plain high-speed rail corridor would link Bucharest (București) to Galați, and could be extended to to Odessa. This post is about the Brăila – Galați section.
The new high-speed rail line would run north-east from Bucharest to Urziceni, and then alongside the existing line 700, bypassing Făurei. The result is an almost straight rail line to Brăila station. (The diverging high-speed lines toward Buzău and Tecuci are not relevant here).
However, the existing line from Brăila to Galați, part of line 700, is far from straight. The two cities are only 20 km apart, but between them is a floodplain, at the confluence of the Siret and Danube rivers. The railway turns west and then back east, to cross the Siret. At Galați, it makes a long detour around the city to the main station.
The floodplain was reclaimed after the railway was built, but it is still low-lying, and protected by a river dike. A new road is planned across the farmland, and a new rail line could run alongside it, or parallel to it. Because of the flood risk, a new line would preferably be on viaduct.
The marshes between Brăila and Galați, from an Austro-Hungarian military map of around 1900…
The long route around the suburbs of Galați is also determined by topography. The city is built on a ridge, extending north from the Danube. The railway crosses it in tunnel, north of the city centre, and then turns south to the main station, Galați CFR. The station at Barboși, just after the bridge over the Siret, is more convenient for much of the city.
Tracks at Galați, from OpenStreetMap…
The new line would have four distinct sections. First, there would be a new exit tunnel from Brăila station, dropping to lower ground at the edge of the city, and passing about 15 m below housing.
The new line would then cross the farmland between Brăila and Galați. At the Siret river it would rejoin the existing alignment. This section would be parallel to the existing line into Barboși station. (The line from Tecuci, line 704, joins the Brăila line here). The line would then enter a 6-km tunnel under Galați.
The new HSL would have a station at Barboși, allowing interchange with the existing line. (The city’s small tram network would be extended, to serve this station). The HSL would continue alongside the old line, as far as the road overbridge, and enter the western tunnel portal. It may be easier for the new line to cross the old line twice, to give a better alignment.
The ground rises here, so the rail line would not descend to tunnel. Both portals would be at about 10 m elevation, and the tunnel would run level, about 30-40 m under the city. Although it passes under the city centre, there will be no station there. 40 m is too deep, and if the tunnel climbed nearer the surface, it would conflict with deep foundations.
Indicative tunnel alignment…
The line would emerge from tunnel about 300 m from the main station, and pass just south of it. Here too, the terrain slopes down from the city centre, so the HSL would stay level as it emerges from tunnel. It would cross the station zone on viaduct, at right angles to the existing platforms. The second Galați HSL station would be on this viaduct, allowing interchange with all existing lines.
A possible alternative alignment would have a tunnel portal further south, allowing the HSL to turn north into Galați CFR. That would require substantial demolition in a residential area. (With an additional viaduct eastwards, some trains might then serve the HSL station at Barboși, pass through the tunnel, and continue toward Reni without further stops).
At Galați CFR, high-speed trains would connect with the line from Tecuci, (line 704), the existing line 703 to Bârlad (Birlad), a possible line along the Prut valley line (which would use line 703 to exit Galați), and the broad-gauge line to Reni, which continues to Basarabeasca and Chișinău. The Reni line could also be extended to Izmail, another Danube port, 65 km east of Galați.
Rail routes from Galați, with new links…
East of the new viaduct station, the line would continue eastwards into a undeveloped zone with some industry. It can connect there to existing alignments and rail yards. A HSL extension toward Odessa would simply follow the existing line out of Galați, toward the Prut river bridge, Giurgiulești, and Reni.
The new line would be about 22 km long, station to station. The highest speeds are only possible on the open section between Brăila and the Siret bridge into Galați. Speeds in the city tunnel would be lower, and all trains would stop at Galați CFR anyway. Journey time would be about 9 minutes from Brăila to Galați CFR, more it the train stopped at Barboși. Although the existing line would be retained for freight, all passenger services would use the new line. To avoid overloading long-distance high-speed trains, there should be a shuttle service between Brăila, Barboși and Galați CFR. The tunnel under Galați could also be used by fast trains from the Tecuci line, but all others would use existing routes into Galați CFR.
Een hogesnelheidslijn (HSL) tussen Nijmegen en Eindhoven heeft vooral zin in combinatie met een HSL Brussel – Eindhoven. Treinen kunnen doorrijden naar Arnhem en Zwolle: zo ontstaat een nieuwe verbinding tussen Brussel en Noord- en Oost-Nederland, dat de afstanden flink verkort. Zonder een HSL vanuit Brussel, heeft een HSL naar Nijmegen veel minder zin: vandaar de vraagteken in de kop.
Tussen Nijmegen en Eindhoven is er nooit een rechtstreekse spoorverbinding geweest. De huidige verbinding vereist een overstap in Den Bosch: de L-vormige route is 74 km lang. Er zijn meerdere varianten denkbaar voor een HSL-tracé, maar de afstand komt steeds op 60 km, of iets daaronder. De afstand meer dan 20% verkorten, zit er dus niet in. Een HSL door De Peel kan wel voor hoge snelheden worden aangelegd, waardoor de reistijd meer dan halveert – van de huidige 56 minuten, tot onder 25 minuten.
Hier wordt gekeken naar een mogelijk tracé voor een HSL door De Peel, ongeveer 40 km lang. Dit is louter een snelle verbinding: het tracé vermijdt de dorpen, en heeft geen stations. Het heeft dus niets te maken met de eerder voorgestelde regionale spoorlijnen in de driehoek Den Bosch – Eindhoven – Nijmegen. Met een afwijkende spoorbreedte en voertuigen, worden die lijnen compleet gescheiden van de historische spoorlijnen, en lijken veel meer op een regionale metro. Door de vele haltes bieden ze geen snelle verbindingen, en dus geen vervanging voor de bestaande Intercity.
De HSL zoals hier beschreven, loopt op nieuw tracé tussen Eeneind en Cuijk. Het is wel afhankelijk van twee eerdere voorstellen:
- een HSL Eindhoven – Venlo, en
- de ombouw van de Maaslijn tot HSL, met vier sporen ten zuiden van Nijmegen.
In theorie, kan een nieuwe lijn door de Peel ook zonder hoge snelheden. Het heeft alleen geen nut, omdat het de reistijd niet verkort, zeker niet als het aansluit op de huidige enkelsporige lijn door Cuijk. Als er echt een regionale lijn moet komen, dan moet het niet op het dit tracé, maar langs de dorpen.
Het tracé wordt slechts schematisch aangegeven: alleen bij Beek en Donk ligt het vast. Zeker in de Peel moet het als een strook worden gezien, niet als een lijn. Het terrein is vlak – akkerland met intensieve veehouderij – en het tracé kan iets verschoven worden als dat nodig blijkt.
De nieuwe lijn zou van de spoorlijn naar Venlo aftakken bij Eeneind, 7 km van Station Eindhoven. Deze aftakking ligt ten zuiden van Nuenen, ter hoogte van de vuilstort. Het tracé draait richting noordoosten, en loopt langs de rand van Stiphout, en ten westen van Aarle-Rixtel.
De HSL kan door Beek en Donk, als het de N615 volgt: er is een gat in de bebouwing, naast de brug over de Zuid-Willemsvaart. Een verdiepte ligging is hier wenselijk, met een aquaduct voor het kanaal, en 300 m verderop nog een aquaduct onder de Aa. De N615 is geen rechte lijn, en de HSL zou het waarschijnlijk tweemaal kruisen, om zoveel mogelijk door de velden te lopen. De sloop van enkele nieuwbouwwoningen, vlak bij de brug, is echter onvermijdelijk. Als dat te ingewikkeld wordt, dan kan de HSL verder zuidelijk liggen (in geel op de kaart).
Het loopt dan kort naast het Wilhelminakanaal, en kruist de Zuid-Willemsvaart waar ook de twee kanalen kruisen. Het tracé komt dan verder van Gemert te liggen, waardoor de lijn in zijn geheel iets langer wordt.
De HSL loopt in elk geval ten zuiden van Gemert, evenwijdig aan de N272 (zuidelijke randweg). Het zou hier meer oost-west lopen. Daarna draait het weer iets meer naar het noordoosten, en loopt waarschijnlijk ten noorden van Elsendorp. Dit klein dorp ligt op de kruising N272 / N277, te midden van open agrarisch landschap.
Bij Elsendorp, kijkend richting Landhorst…
De HSL loopt vervolgens onder Landhorst, en langs de rand van Wanroij, steeds meer naar het noord-oosten draaiend. Het passeert de oostrand van Haps, en kruist de A73 in de buurt van km 86. Bij Haps kruist de lijn overigens de enige historische spoorlijn in de Peel, de oude Boxteler Bahn naar Wesel (‘Duits Lijntje’).
Aan de rand van Cuijk, sluit de HSL aan op de opgewaardeerde lijn uit Venlo. Voor het tracé is het gunstig als de aansluiting iets dichter bij het station ligt, ook al vereist dat de sloop van enkele bedrijfsgebouwen. De aansluiting ligt circa 16 km van Station Nijmegen.
De nieuwe lijn kan nergens bestaande infrastructuur volgen, maar voor de aanleg zijn er weinig belemmeringen. Het kan niet elke boerderij of schuur vermijden, maar de Peel is voor Nederlandse begrippen een leeg gebied, het product van grootschalige turfwinning en ontginning in de 19e en 20e eeuw. Alleen tussen Nuenen en Helmond moet het tracé rekening houden met natuurgebieden.
Een HSL Eindhoven – Nijmegen kan dus wel, maar heeft te weinig voordelen om het als geïsoleerde lijn aan te leggen. Als de keuze ligt tussen een directe HSL, en verbetering van de bestaande L-vormige route via Den Bosch, dan zal de bestaande route altijd de voorkeur hebben. Het betekent namelijk verbetering van twee belangrijke assen: Amsterdam – Limburg, en Breda – Nijmegen – Zwolle. Ook als dat buiten beschouwing wordt gelaten, zou de aanleg van een HSL Brussel – Eindhoven altijd voorrang hebben, boven een HSL Eindhoven – Nijmegen.
This is an English-language version of a proposal for a high-speed rail line (HSL) south from Utrecht. It is more than a simple translation of the Dutch-language version, and includes more background information, for readers unfamiliar with the line and the region.
The line is part of a series of proposed high-speed corridors out of the Netherlands, and would extend to Aachen.
The southeastern HSL corridor would consist of:
- the Amsterdam – Utrecht line, which was built as part of the Amsterdam – Arnhem line. The line now has four tracks, and is in principle suitable for 200 km/h outside Amsterdam. With the present DC 1500V electrification, however, 160 km/h is the maximum. There are medium-term plans to double the voltage on the Netherlands electrified lines.
- a HSL Utrecht – Eindhoven, 80 km, as described here.
- a high-speed cut-off line between Eindhoven and Sittard proposed here earlier. The present route is indirect, via Roermond: the new line would run through Belgium, pass Maaseik, and then re-enter Dutch territory. An alternative is a shorter cut-off line along the A2 motorway avoiding Roermond.
- a proposed HSL Sittard – Aachen, bypassing Heerlen. At present there is only an indirect single-track rail link from Heerlen into Aachen, with an hourly diesel service.
The present use of the route is as a domestic main line to Maastricht, the capital of the Province of Limburg. Half the Intercity trains terminate at Heerlen, the centre of the former coal-mining region in Limburg. The line is no longer seen as an international route, although it did carry international trains in the past. There are cross-border regional trains from Maastricht to Liège, and from Heerlen to Aachen.
The railway from Utrecht to Eindhoven
A high-speed line from Utrecht to Eindhoven has been proposed in the past, but is currently off the political agenda. It would generally follow the existing Utrecht – Eindhoven route, which is relatively straight. Although this is now considered the main north-south line of the Netherlands, it was not built as a single line. The section from Boxtel to Eindhoven was completed first, as part of an east-west line from Breda (Staatslijn E, 1866). The connecting line from Utrecht was added a few years later (Staatslijn H, 1870).
Although the line climbs only 20 m from Utrecht to Eindhoven, the three major rivers are a significant obstacle. Prior to 1870, there were no bridges here at all. The line crosses two river dikes at each river, sometimes with a level crossing on the dike. Between the dikes, there are embankments or viaducts in the floodplain, leading to the railway bridge itself.
Cab video: Utrecht – Den Bosch June 2013
When the railway was built, Utrecht and Den Bosch (‘s-Hertogenbosch) were the only cities. Otherwise the region was agricultural, with market towns. The population along the line is still concentrated in those towns: Culemborg, Geldermalsen, Zaltbommel and Boxtel. Eindhoven itself was also a market town, but as the home of the Philips company, it grew to become the largest city in the southern Netherlands. Utrecht and Eindhoven are now agglomerations, with suburbanised villages such as Houten and Best on the main line. Between the rivers, however, the railway and the landscape have not changed much since the line was opened – although the small village stations have closed.
Utrecht – Houten – River Lek
The station at Utrecht Centraal is being reconstructed and expanded, a project which will not be complete until 2030. That includes extra tracks south of the station, and a grade-separated junction with the Arnhem line, at the edge of Utrecht. Four tracks are almost complete on the first 10 km out of Utrecht, as far as Houten.
The proposed HSL will incorporate existing four-track sections, and the rest of the line will also need two extra tracks, at Geldermalsen in the form of a bypass. In fact the whole line would need reconstruction, with the disappearance of all remaining level crossings, and conversion to 25 kV AC. This post describes mainly how the HSL would be combined with the existing infrastructure. Obviously that has consequences for all connecting lines – but a general reconstruction of the network is a precondition for the proposed HSL corridors anyway.
The line out of Utrecht must take account of another proposed HSL – a new new line Utrecht – Breda. Although this line has been planned since the the 19th-century, the current works make no provision for a junction with it. The junction design is problematic, because the Eindhoven line crosses two motorways, A12 and A27. Possibly the HSL to Breda could diverge from the Arnhem line, and then cross the Eindhoven line, and the motorway junction, on viaduct. That is probably easier, then digging up the entire junction south of Utrecht.
The four-track section Utrecht – Houten has the fast tracks on the outside, with island platforms for suburban services. There is no alternative for this arrangement, and very high speed through Houten is not possible. From the edge of Houten, the line is double-track. It climbs there to cross the Amsterdam – Rhine Canal. Because of limited space between the last station and the canal, the only option here is to extend the four-track section, with a new bridge over the canal, or two single-track bridges.
After the Amsterdam – Rhine Canal, the line leaves the Utrecht agglomeration, and runs through open polder landscape. Because of the soft soil, the 19th-century tracks can not simply be relaid for high speed: the best option is to build a parallel HSL. That means that one fast track must cross the slow tracks, as they descend from the canal bridges.
Then line then cuts through the village of Schalkwijk. It is a linear village, so in principle it is only two houses wide, but the rail line crosses it at the oldest part. By slightly shifting the alignment, it would be possible to cut through the village without demolishing any historic buildings, and improve two curves north and south of the village. The village once had a station, and with four tracks available, it could be re-opened. A simple underpass under the line is sufficient: thanks to the Amsterdam – Rhine Canal, the village is now on an island, and there is no through traffic.
A possible realignment through Schalkwijk: Base map by Jan-Willem van Aalst, with CC3.0 licence…
After Schalkwijk, the old line runs through open polder to the Lek River. To realign a relatively sharp curve here, the HSL might cross the slow tracks again. The 19th-century rail bridge is unsuitable for high speeds, so a new parallel bridge is essential here. The alignment through Culemborg, on the southern side, would determine its exact position.
River Lek to River Maas
The old line through Culemborg, and the station, are on an embankment. That was unavoidable, because the railway descends from a bridge into a lower polder. The new HSL must run close to the existing line, but simply widening a 19th-century embankment will not work for high-speed trains.
If the whole line was new, a tunnel would be the preferred option here. Given the existing line and station, a parallel HSL on viaduct seems the best option. There is a strip of land available on the west side of the embankment, so a viaduct could be built about 20 m from it, closer as it passed the station.
Culemborg: space for HSL just west of existing line, base map by Jan-Willem van Aalst, with CC3.0 licence…
South of Culemborg, the line again runs through open fields, with a few level crossings. Here too, a parallel HSL is the simplest to construct. Approaching Geldermalsen, however, a new alignment is essential.
Geldermalsen is a classic 19th-century mainline junction, built near a small town. It was once served by international trains, and the 19th-century elegance of Geldermalsen Station reflects its former importance.
Geldermalsen station in 1974: image by Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, with CC3.0 licence…
At Geldermalsen, the east-west line from Dordrecht to Arnhem and Nijmegen (Betuwelijn) crosses the north-south line from Utrecht. They join north of the station, and share a double-track bridge over the Linge river, into the station. The Betuwelijn diverges again just south of the station, turning eastwards. None of the junctions are grade-separated, the alignment is an S-curve, and there are several level crossings. That was not an issue in the 19th century, with a few trains per hour.
Geldermalsen: the north-south Utrecht – Eindhoven line, the east-west Dordrecht – Nijmegen Betuwelijn, the A15 motorway and adjoining freight line Betuweroute, and its junctions with the north-south line, base map by Jan-Willem van Aalst, with CC3.0 licence…
A bypass of Geldermalsen would diverge from the old line at km 22, and rejoin it at km 30. The alignment is only marginally shorter, but it can be designed for 300 km/h, impossible on the old alignments. The bypass would cross agricultural land, but a tunnel is essential to avoid the protected landscape along the River Linge.
A bypass has the additional advantage of avoiding the junctions with the Betuweroute. Not to be confused with the Betuwelijn, this is a new east-west freight line, parallel to the A15 motorway. The bypass would cross both in open fields, simplifying construction of the crossings.
Indicative alignment of a Geldermalsen bypass …
From the 30-km point southwards, the existing line through Waardenburg and Zaltbommel is straight. Here too, a parallel HSL is the best option. In both cases, the built-up area is west of the old line, so the new HSL would be on its eastern side. That means that it would cross the old line again, at the end of the Geldermalsen bypass. The extra cost is outweighed by the benefits elsewhere.
Between Waardenburg and Zaltbommel, the line crosses the River Waal. With a parallel HSL, a new bridge can simply be built alongside the old one, minimising disruption. With all fast trains diverted to the new line, the former station at Waardenburg can be reopened.
Across the Waal: Base map by Jan-Willem van Aalst, with CC3.0 licence…
On the other side of the river, in Zaltbommel, the line runs through an industrial zone. Apart from a few sheds, a parallel HSL alignment is clear of buildings. The new line would run on viaduct here. The old line and station will stay as they are. The station is inconveniently sited, but it can not be moved closer to the historic centre, because of the gradient on the bridge approach.
From the River Waal to the River Maas, the railway is a straight line through farmland, apart from a slight curve at km 40. The HSL would be built directly alongside it. Just before the River Waal, the line passes the village of Hedel. Again, the village is west of the line, so the HSL and a new Maas bridge will be on the east side. As at Waardenburg, extra capacity will allow re-opening of the old Hedel station.
The 30 km section, between Schalkwijk and the River Maas, can be built for relatively high speeds. The existing HSL-Zuid to Paris is designed for 300 km/h between Hoofddorp en Rotterdam, a distance of 48 km.
Through Den Bosch and Vught
Immediately after the Maas bridge at Hedel, there is a sharp curve. The parallel HSL needs a better alignment, but space is restricted. The city of Den Bosch has expanded northwards to the river, and there is housing near the line. The curve can be partly compensated by slanting the new Maas bridge a few degrees to the old one. There would be a slight curve on the north bank of the river, a straight bridge, and another curve on the south side. The sharp curve would be in effect ‘spread out’. The HSL will still be closer to the housing than the old line, but not directly alongside it.
Click to enlarge…
South of the bridge and the new curve, the HSL would leave its own alignment and join the old line, which would be widened to four tracks. About 4 km from the Maas, the line curves around the Ertveldplas lake, and then crosses the River Dieze into the main station. This alignment is an S-curve, which can however be improved by shifting the line toward the lake. This is an industrial zone, and nothing important will be demolished. The line will be widened anyway, to accommodate the extra tracks.
This realignment requires a new overbridge, followed by a new bridge over the River Dieze. The existing bridge has recently been replaced, with four tracks including a flyover for the line from Nijmegen. That is a great improvement on the old bridge with its flat junction, but the design does not allow for additional tracks. The brand-new flyover will probably need reconstruction, and a new track must be fitted in to the space between that flyover, and a new road bridge. The line to Nijmegen should also be upgraded and four-tracked, at least as far as Oss, but an 8-track junction is out of the question here.
It is impossible to give design details here, but with four tracks from Utrecht, a 5th and 6th track over the Dieze are essential. The four tracks between the Maas and the main station are also a precondition, for new stations in Den Bosch.
Two new stations in Den Bosch: Base map by Jan-Willem van Aalst, with CC3.0 licence…
The main station (Station Den Bosch) has also been reconstructed over the past few years. The two long island platforms and a side platform should be sufficient, but there is enough space for another side platform on the west side.
Capacity on the line is restricted south of Den Bosch station. There are three curves on the 3-km section to Vught, a suburbanised village. The railway avoids a fort (Fort Isabella), which was still in use when it was built. In Vught, there are several level crossings, and a flat junction with the line to Tilburg. A third track has been added, and when new roads were built recently, space was left for a fourth. However, it has not been laid yet, and there are no plans for a grade-separated junction. This section is already a source of delays, and no high-speed service is possible without major reconstruction.
Demolition is unavoidable here. One option is to shift the Tilburg line to a new alignment, in tunnel under the N65 road. That could be combined with construction of a proposed HSL to Tilburg, but the N65 tunnel could simply connect to the existing line outside Vught. Either way, a tunnel under the N65 is easier to connect to the Eindhoven line, with a grade-separated junction. The N65 itself would be lowered, or possibly replaced entirely by a bypass around Vught.
New junction in Vught: N65 tunnel connects to new HSL, or alternatively to existing line, in yellow...
Just south of the junction, the line through Vught station could be rebuilt as a four-track cut-and-cover tunnel, similar to that in Best (further south). The complete reconstruction of the lines through Vught would allow for two extra stations there. No very high speeds will be possible here, but since all trains would stop at Den Bosch, that is not a problem.
Vught to Eindhoven
South of Vught, the old line to Boxtel is almost straight. It climbs slightly, and it is now on sandy soil with only minor streams to cross. Here it would be possible to convert the line for high speeds, with four tracks, although a parallel HSL is also an option.
Cab video: Den Bosch – Eindhoven June 2013
The main problem is the junction at Boxtel itself, where the line from Tilburg joins the line from Den Bosch. The junction and the station are located on an S-curve, which is now within the built-up area of Boxtel. The station was rebuilt in the 1990′s, with parallel island platforms: one for the Tilburg line, and one for the Den Bosch line. Each platform has two outside tracks for fast trains, making eight tracks in total. South of the station is a grade-separated junction, where the lines converge onto four tracks, but it does not fully separate fast and slow trains.
A radical option for the Tilburg line is a new HSL Tilburg – Eindhoven, which would bypass Boxtel entirely. That would allow two tracks south of Boxtel to be reserved for fast trains – the alignment is in principle suitable for 200 km/h.
However, that does not solve the main problem at Boxtel: the S-curve, and especially the curve north of the station. Demolition of housing is unavoidable, to allow high speeds through Boxtel. That would require a new north curve, and a tunnel through the station zone for high-speed trains, probably between the existing platforms. The tunnel would cross all existing tracks and surface on their eastern side. An alternative is that the regional trains from Den Bosch use a tunnel to acres the ‘Tilburg platform’, allowing demolition of the eastern platform. That option would also require extra tracks on the eastern side.
Click to enlarge…
In any case, the junction south of Boxtel (at Liempde) must be redesigned to separate high-speed trains from all other traffic. The Boxtel – Eindhoven section was quadrupled and rebuilt for ‘high speeds’ in the 1990′s, but the current line speed is only 140 km/h, so it needs further reconstruction. Additional tracks for freight trains are also desirable on this section.
South of Boxtel, the line runs for 8 km through forest and fields. At the suburbanised village of Best, it enters the Eindhoven agglomeration. During the reconstruction in the 1990′s, the line through the village was lowered into a cut-and-cover tunnel. The station is at its north end, with platforms partly in the tunnel. It has four platforms, because regional trains can use any track. For high-speed trains, two of them must be closed, probably the outer platforms. The chosen option must also be compatible with a planned station in Acht, south of Best. The tunnel at Best was not designed for expansion, but there is room alongside it for an additional freight tunnel.
If the proposed direct HSL from Tilburg is built, it would join the line between Best and Eindhoven – at km 53 if it follows the A58 motorway, otherwise in tunnel near km 55. From there, six tracks are probably needed into central Eindhoven. The only other station, Beukenlaan, would be rebuilt – keeping two platform tracks for regional trains.
1500 m after this suburban station, the line turns 45 degrees, into the main station at Eindhoven. There is no room for new junctions here: all trains must be sorted by destination platform, as they pass Beukenlaan. Close to the station, six tracks will also be difficult, with office buildings almost adjoining the line.
The main Eindhoven Station would retain its existing layout, with three island platforms and two outer tracks. For high-speed trains going further south, and for a possible HSL to Venlo, new grade-separated junctions on its eastern side are also essential.
The new HSL will will barely shorten the route from Utrecht to Eindhoven. All gains come from higher speeds on new track, and from avoiding conflicts with all other traffic. Approximate journey times on a southeastern HSL corridor are:
- existing line Amsterdam – Utrecht 35 km, from Arena Station at 200 km/h line speed, about 20-25 minutes
- HSL Utrecht – Eindhoven, marginally shorter than the existing 80-km line, built for at least 250 km/h between the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal and the Maas, and upgraded for at least 200 km/h between Vught and Eindhoven, 35 minutes including a stop at Den Bosch
- HSL Eindhoven – Sittard, about 60 km long, built for 250 km/h, about 20-25 minutes
- alternatively, a shorter HSL alongside the A2 motorway past Maasbracht, shortening the route by 12 km and built for 250 km/h, about 25-30 minutes
- HSL Sittard – Aachen of about 35 km length, 15 minutes
The total journey time from Amsterdam to Aachen would be between 90 and 105 minutes. That is not utopian: a journey time of 90 minutes implies an average speed of 140 km/h – not unrealistic even with four stops.
Revised with new maps: High-speed line Antwerpen – Eindhoven.